Chemical elements
  Sulphur
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Extraction
    Refining
    Applications
    Allotropy
    Crystalline
    Amorphous Sulphur
    Colloidal Sulphur
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
    Detection
    Estimation
    Compounds
      Hydrogen Sulphide
      Metal Polysulphides
      Hydrogen Polysulphides
      Hydrogen Pentasulphide
      Hydrogen Trisulphide
      Hydrogen Disulphide
      Sulphur Monofluoride
      Sulphur Tetrafluoride
      Sulphur Hexafluoride
      Sulphur Monochloride
      Sulphur Dichloride
      Sulphur Tetrachloride
      Sulphur Monobromide
      Thionyl Fluoride
      Sulphuryl Fluoride
      Fluorosulphonic Acid
      Thionyl Chloride
      Sulphuryl Chloride
      Sulphur Oxytetrachloride
      Pyrosulphuryl Chloride
      Chlorosulphonic Acid
      Thionyl Bromide
      Sodium Sulphoxylate
      Sulphur Dioxide
      Sulphurous Acid
      Sulphites
      Sulphur Trioxide
      Pyrosulphuric Acid
      Pyrosulphates
      Sulphuric Acid
      Persulphuric Anhydride
      Persulphuric Acid or Perdisulphuric Acid
      Perdisulphates
      Permonosulphuric Acid
      Amidopermonosulphuric Acid
      Thiosulphuric Acid
      Thiosulphates
      Polythionic Acids
      Dithionic Acid
      Trithionic Acid
      Trithionates
      Tetrathionic Acid
      Tetrathionates
      Pentathionic Acid
      Pentathionates
      Wackenroders Solution
      Hexathionic Acid
      Polythionic Acids
      Sulphur Sesquioxide
      Hydrosulphurous Acid
      Hydrosulphites
      Nitrogen Sulphide
      Nitrogen Persulphide
      Nitrogen Pentasulphide
      Sulphammonium
      Hexasulphamide
      Nitrogen Chlorosulphide
      Trithiazyl Chloride
      Thiotrithiazyl Chloride
      Dithiotetrathiazyl Chloride
      Nitrogen Bromosulphide
      Thiotrithiazyl Bromide
      Thiotrithiazyl Iodide
      Thiotrithiazyl Nitrate
      Thiotrithiazyl Hydrogen Sulphate
      Thiotrithiazyl Thiocyanate
      Thionylamide
      Sulphamide
      Imidodisulphamide
      Sulphimide
      Sulphonic Acids
      Amidosulphonic Acid
      Imidosulphonic Acid
      Nitrilosulphonic Acid
      Hydroxylamine-monosulphonic Acid
      Nitrososulphonic Acid
      Hydroxylamine-disulphonic Acid
      Hydroxylamine-isodisulphonic Acid
      Hydroxylamine-trisulphonic Acid
      Dihydroxylamidosulphonic Acid
      Sulphazinic Acid
      Sulphazotinic Acid
      Dehydrosulphazotinic Acid
      Nitrosulphonic Acid
      Nitrosulphonyl Chloride
      Nitrosulphonic Anhydride
      Nitrosulphuric Acid
      Nitrosodisulphonic Acid
      Sulphonitronic Acid
      Sulphates of Hydroxylamine
      Hydroxylamine Dithionate
      Hydrazine Dithionate
      Hydrazine Amidosulphonate
      Carbon Subsulphide
      Carbon Monosulphide
      Carbon Disulphide
      Thioformaldehyde
      Thiocarbonic Acid
      Ammonium thiocarbonate
      Thiolcarbonic Acid
      Xanthic Acid
      Perthiocarbonic Acid
      Sodium perthiocarbonate
      Carbonyl Sulphide
      Thiocarbonyl Chloride
      Thiocarbonyl Tetrachloride or
      Carbon Hexachlorosulphide
      Trichloromethyl Disulphide
      Thiocarbonyl Sulphochloride
      Carbon Bromosulphide
      Amino-derivatives of Thiocarbonic Acid
      Dithiocarbamic Acid
      Thiocarbamide
      Azidodithiocarbonic Acid
      Thiocyanogen
      Cyanogen Monosulphide
      Cyanogen Trisulphide
      Sulphur Thiocyanate
      Disulphur Dithiocyanate
      Thiocyanic Acid
      Thiocyanates
      Dithiocyanic Acid
      Trithiocyanuric Acid
      Perthiocyanic Acid
      Perthiocyanogen
      Sulphates

Sulphonic Acids






Just as chlorosulphonic acid may be regarded as derived from hydrochloric acid by the substitution of the group - SO2.OH in place of the hydrogen atom, so also many other compounds are known which likewise may be considered as produced by the introduction of the sulphonic acid group in place of hydrogen.

For example, ammonia and its hydroxy derivatives yield a series of sulphonic acids, their relationships being represented by the following table:

NH3,
Ammonia.
HO.NH2,
Hydroxylamine.
NH(OH)2,
Dihydroxyammonia.
N(OH)3,
"Ortho-nitrous " acid.
NH2.SO2.OH,
Amidosulphonic acid.
HO.NH.SO2.OH,
Hy droxylami ne-sulphonic acid.
OH.SO2.n(OH)2,
Dihydroxylarnine-sul- phonic acid.
NH(SO2.OH)2,
Imidosulphonic acid.
HO.N(SO2.OH)2,
Hydroxylamine-disul- phonic acid.
N(SO2.OH)3,
Nitrilosulphonic acid.


The foregoing sulphonie acids are all known, at least in the form of their salts, and are obtainable, directly or indirectly, by the interaction of sulphurous and nitrous acids or their salts. Isomerides of some of the sulphonic acids are also known, for example, hydroxylamine-isosulphonic acid, NH2.O.SO2.OH, which is obtainable by the action of chlorosulphonic acid on hydroxylamine hydrochloride. As its constitution indicates, this isomeric acid is in reality a derivative of permonosulphuric acid.

By the action of sulphur dioxide on ammonia three different compounds may be formed, the product depending on the conditions of the reaction. The proportions in which the gases combine depend largely on the extent to which the temperature is allowed to rise, the heat of union being considerable. The product also varies according to which gas is present in excess, unless the temperature is kept very low, in which case ammonium amidosulphinate is formed. When sulphur dioxide is in excess the yellow, crystalline amidosulphinic acid, NH3.SO2 or NH2.SO2H, is formed. With excess of ammonia the product may be either the white, crystalline salt, ammonium amidosulphinate, 2NH3.SO2 or NH2.SO2.NH4, or triammonium imidodisulphinate, 4NH3.2SO2 or NH4.N:(SO2.NH4)2, a red compound, having the same percentage composition as ammonium amidosulphinate but of double molecular weight. That in the molecule of this latter substance three of the nitrogen atoms are placed differently from the fourth is evident from the formation of a silver salt, Ag.N:(SO2Ag)2, which is also red in colour. Triammonium imidodisulphinate is also obtainable by the action of thionyl chloride on liquid ammonia, a di amide first being formed:

2SOCl2 + 7NH3 = HN:(SO.NH2)2 + 4NH4Cl.

The diamide is hydrolysed by water to NH(SO2.NH4)2, which reacts with more ammonia to form the triammonium salt. On evaporation, and digestion of the residue with absolute alcohol at -5° C., a red solution is obtained, which, when evaporated in a vacuum, yields the triammonium salt in the form of red flakes.

Ammonia combines with sulphur trioxide to form at least six different compounds:

NH3.2SO3 or HN(SO3H)2, Imidosulphonic acid.
NH3.SO3 or H2N.SO3H, Amidosulphonic acid.
4NH3.3SO3 or N(SO3.NH4)3, Ammonium nitrilosulphonate.
3NH3.2SO3 or HN(SO3NH4)2, Diammonium imidosulphonate (parasulphat-ammon).
4NH3.2SO3 or (NH4)N(SO3.NH4)2, Normal ammonium imidosulphonate (sulphat-ammon).
2NH3.SO3 or H2N.SO3.NH4, Ammonium amidosulphonate.

These six compounds can all be derived the one from the other, with the exception of the nitrilosulphonate, which cannot be re-formed from the others although it is itself the most convenient source of them. Nitrilosulphonic acid would, if it existed in the free state, be the seventh of these compounds, heading the column as NH3.3SO3 or N(SO3H)3.


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